1st. chapter

Dear Children,
It is important to remember the following points
before you start drawing a portrait.

1. As you start shading the portrait, your hand tends to 
get dirty with lead powder.This has to be avoided, as it 
might spoil your portrait.
You can do this by working downwards from the top to the 
bottom of the page whenever possible, or better still, 
you could make it a habit to place a clean sheet of paper 
under your hand while working.
2. Don't hurry or rush while you draw the portrait. 
It will result in an untidy picture. 
Work patiently and complete the portrait step -by-step. 
You will need about 2-3 hours to complete a portrait study.
Speed will come through practice.
3. Don't be disheartened if you are not happy with the 
shading in a certain part of the portrait. Improve upon 
it with the help of an eraser or rub out that part 
totally and start a new. 
4. After you finish shading, compare your portrait with the 
original reference and make the necessary changes. 
In a portrait study, it is important that the portrait reflects 
the personality of the subject. Pay special attention to 
this aspects and try to achieve the 'look' of the original.
Dry media such as pencil or pastel are often preferred due to time constraints, but a quickly done watercolor study or even quickly modeled clay or soft wax can also be considered a 'sketch' in the broader sense of the term. The use of a modern pencil however (i.e.: a stick of graphite encased in a wooden holder) did not come into use until modern times, the artists of the Renaissance made sketches using a silver stylus on specially prepared paper (known as silverpoint), that is similar to a modern pencil sketch. 

Pencil sketching is often mostly pencil erasing, that is once the graphite from the pencil is placed on the paper the harsh lines are smudged using an art gum eraser to create shading and fullness. When skillfully done the drawing in pencil will resemble a black and white (or rather a "grayscale") rendering of a photograph. Two kinds of erasers are common in pencil drawing: art gum and hard rubber. Art gum will not totally remove the graphite from the paper but will create the aforementioned shading effect; hard rubber will remove the graphite to "clean up" the drawing by removing the unwanted lines or to bring the drawing into perspective.

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You will need the following material for Pencil Shading
1. Pencil : HB,2B and 4B. TheHB pencil is
medium dark and appropriate for sketching .
The 2B pencil is softer and darker while 4B is 
the darkest of them all.2B and 4B pencils
are used for shading.
2. Eraser: A good quality soft eraser is as
important as the pencil.
3. A piece of cotton cloth : To spread and
soften the pencil shading.
4. Sharpener: For sharpening HB pencils. 
It is advisable not to use the sharpener for
2B and 4B pencils.
5.Cutter: For making paper stencils and 
for sharpening 2B and 4B pencils. 
It is also used to powder the pencil lead
which is required for shading.
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